INSTRUCTORS: Stephen A. Sonnenberg PhD

CEUS: 2.4
Geologists and geophysicists, petrophysicists, reservoir engineers and managers who are exploring for and developing oil and gas fields in basin-center systems particularly appropriate for those desiring to the assessment of operation and non-operation assets. Some experience with electric well logs would be helpful.

This three-day workshop provides an introduction to sound evaluation techniques used in choosing and developing “unconventional resource new ventures”.

This workshop combines geology, reservoir engineering, reserve evaluation and economic forecasting and the concepts of multi-variable analysis to develop skills that help predict productivity prediction in oil/gas systems.

The workshop covers gas and oil plays in shale and stacked tight sands developed with horizontal and vertical wells which are completed and stimulated with necessary hydraulic fracturing.

(1) Reservoir types and quality of the resource is determined using global comparisons to actual existing unconventional systems (both productive and non-productive).

(2) An introduction to the pertinent data, drivers, evaluation techniques and the use of cross-plots.

(3) The recognition of workable plays with viable development program economics. Knowledge and a gut-feel for why some large plays failed overall or were only economic in the sweet-spots.

• Demonstrate knowledge of reservoir/geological attributes (variables) pertaining to unconventional resource play viability and their order-of-magnitude. Attendees will be able to screen (evaluate) all play types. For example, what will work, what is economically feasible, what play has critical flaws, what play is basin-centered but is marginal because of its size and depth.
• Be able to develop an idea of viability of prospective oil/gas play (new venture) and compare it to other global plays. Develop a clear idea of reservoir/geologic mechanisms and acceptability. Develop reserve forecasts.
• Recognize and appraise how a play will or will not perform. Include examples of winners and losers (using actual cases). Sweet-spot identification. REALLY know what you are evaluating quantitatively with comparison to other global play results.
• Be able to evaluate tight gas sands over a long vertical interval and shale gas over a finite interval developed with horizontal wells. Evaluation of plays with an inverted fluid column (water to oil to gas transitions). Prevent grave and costly mistakes.
• Knowledge of mixed/integrated parameters such as electric log values of porosity, resistivity, and “cross-over gas effect”. Express and know the value of “drivers” versus depth and location. Integrate with thermal maturity and pressure data (always as a function of depth, subsea depth or depth to stratigraphy.
• Apply intuitive principles which yield a clear relationship to oil/gas productivity in tight rocks. And, the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments employed by operators.



DAY 1. Unconventional Tight Gas
• Introduction
• What are resource plays?
• Geologic Considerations
• Fractures
• Source rocks
• Reservoir architecture and style
• Subsurface pressures & pressure compartments
• Reservoir quality
• Reservoir heterogeneity
• Petrophysical properties
o Buckle Plots: Bulk Volume Water (BVW) is (Porosity times Water Saturation)
o Hingle plots
o Pickett plots
• Burial history and timing of gas charge
• Basin-center trapping
o Examples of Basin-center gas accumulations
• Myths, Facts, Fallacies Basin-centered gas
• Low resistivity low contrast pay
• Shallow gas reservoirs
o High porosity, low permeability systems
o Biogenic methane
• Coal-bed methane
• Shale gas reservoirs
• Drilling and completion
o Vertical versus slant versus horizontal drilling
• Exploration strategies
• Why plays didn’t work
• Seismic expression

DAY 2. Unconventional Tight Oil Reservoirs
• Introduction
• Geologic Considerations
o Source beds
o Fractures and Faults
o Pervasive accumulations
• Pyrolysis
• Technology
o 3-D seismic
o Drilling and completion
o FE SEM, ion milling
o CT scans
o Bambino
o Porosity measurements (MICP)
o Permeability measurements
• Petrophysics
o Rock typing
o Cluster analysis
• Tight Oil Reservoirs
o Bakken
o Niobrara
o Eagle Ford
• Oil Shales
o Green River Oil Shale Example
o In-situ and ex-situ extraction methods
• Tar Sands
o Production methods (SAGD, CSS, etc.)
• Halo Reservoirs
o Denver Basin and Powder River Basin, USA examples

DAY 3. Unconventional resource assessment
• Global assessments
• Screening criteria
• Tight gas, tight oil, halo oil
• Hydrocarbon saturation* Porosity * thickness.
• Resource Density. Compare to 100 BCF/square mile.
• Production type curves. Reserve extrapolation.
• Expected ultimate recovery.
• Recovery, Economics.

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